2015年考研英语一试题(完整版)

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每年的全国研究生统一招生初试考试试题(简称:考研试题)在大家考研过程中的重要程度不言而喻,即使在考研备基础备考阶段也要以历年考研试题为根本,下面是中公考研小编整理发布历年考研英语试题及答案解析汇总供考生参考,预祝大家考个好成绩!

SectionⅠUseofEnglish

Directions:

Readthefollowingtext.Choosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDontheANSWERSHEET.(10points)

Thoughnotbiologicallyrelated,friendsareas"related"asfourthcousins,sharingabout1%ofgenes.Thatis1astudypublishedfromtheUniversityofCaliforniaandYaleUniversityintheProceedingsoftheNationalAcademyofSciences,has2.

Thestudyisagenome-wideanalysisconducteduniquesubjectswhich4pairsofunrelatedfriendsandunrelatedstrangers.Thesamepeoplewereusedinboth5.

While1%mayseem6,itisnotsotoageneticist.Asco-authorofthestudyJamesFowler,professorofmedicalgeneticsatUCSanDiegosays,"Mostpeopledonoteven7theirfourthcousinsbutsomehowmanagetoselectasfriendsthepeoplewho8ourkin."

Theteamalsodevelopeda"friendshipscore"whichcanpredictwhowillbeyourfriendbasedontheirgenes.

Thestudy9foundthatthegenesforsmellweresomethingsharedinfriendsbutnotgenesforimmunity.Whythissimilarityinsmellgenesisdifficulttoexplain,fornow.10,astheteamsuggests,itdrawsustosimilarenvironmentsbutthereismore11it.Therecouldbemanymechanismsworkingintandemthat12usinchoosinggeneticallysimilarfriends13than"functionalkinship"ofbeingfriendswith14!

Oneoftheremarkablefindingsofthestudywasthatthesimilargenesseemtobeevolving15thanothergenes.Studyingthiscouldhelp16whyhumanevolutionpickedpaceinthelast30,000years,withsocialenvironmentbeingamajor17factor.

Thefindingsdonotsimplycorroboratepeople's18tobefriendthoseofsimilar19backgrounds,saytheresearchers.ThoughallthesubjectsweredrawnfromapopulationofEuropeanextraction,carewastakento20thatallsubjects,friendsandstrangersweretakenfromthesamepopulation.Theteamalsocontrolledthedatatocheckancestryofsubjects.

1.[A]what[B]how[C]why[D]when

2.[A]defended[B]concluded[C]withdrawn[D]advised

3.[A]for[B]with[C]by[D]on

4.[A]separated[B]sought[C]compared[D]connected

5.[A]tests[B]objects[C]samples[D]examples

6.[A]insignificant[B]unexpected[C]unreliable[D]incredible

7.[A]visit[B]miss[C]know[D]seek

8.[A]surpass[B]influence[C]favor[D]resemble

9.[A]again[B]also[C]instead[D]thus

10.[A]meanwhile[B]furthermore[C]likewise[D]perhaps

11.[A]about[B]to[C]from[D]like

12.[A]limit[B]observe[C]confuse[D]drive

13.[A]accordingto[B]ratherthan[C]regardlessof[D]alongwith

14.[A]chances[B]responses[C]benefits[D]missions

15[A]faster[B]slower[C]later[D]earlier

16[A]forecast[B]remember[C]express[D]understand

17[A]unpredicted[B]contributory[C]controllable[D]disruptive

18[A]tendency[B]decision[C]arrangement[D]endeavor

19[A]political[B]religious[C]ethnic[D]economic

20[A]see[B]show[C]prove[D]tell

SectionⅡReadingComprehension

PartA

Directions:

Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersontheANSWERSHEET.(40points)

Text1

KingJuanCarlosofSpainonceinsistedkingsdon’tabdicate,theydieintheirsleep.ButembarrassingscandalsandthepopularityoftherepublicanleftintherecentEuro-electionshaveforcedhimtoeathiswordsandstanddown.So,diestheSpanishcrisissuggestthatmonarchyisseeingitslastdays?DoesthatmeantheunitingisonthewallforallEuropeanroyals,withtheirmagnificentuniformsandmajesticlifestyles?

TheSpanishcaseprovidesargumentsbothforandagainstmonarchywhenpublicopinionisparticularly.Polarized,asitwasfollowingtheendoftheFranceregime,monarchscanriseabove“mere”politicsand“embody”aspiritofnationalunity.

Itisthisapparenttranscendenceofpoliticsthatexplainsmonarchscontinuingpopularityasheadsofstates.Andalso,theMiddleEastexpected,Europeisthemostmonarch-infestedregionistheworld,with10kingdoms(notcountingVaticanCityandAndorra).ButunliketheirabsolutistcounterpartsintheGulfandAsia,mostroyalfamilieshavesurvivedbecausetheyallowvoterstoavoidthedifficultsearchforanon-controversialbutrespectpublicfigure.

Evenso,kingsandqueensundoubtedlyhaveadownside,symbolicofnationalunityastheyclaimtobe,theirveryhistory—andsometimesthewaytheybehavetoday-embodiesoutdatedandindefensibleprivilegesandinequalities.AtatimewhenThomasPikettyandothereconomistsarewarningofrisinginequalityandtheincreasingpowerofinheritedwealth,itisbizarrethatwealthyaristocraticfamiliesshouldstillbethesymbolicheartofmoderndemocraticfamiliesshouldstillbethesymbolicheartofmoderndemocraticstates.Themostsuccessfulmonarchiesstrivetoabandonorhidetheiroldaristocraticways.Princeandprincesshaveday-jobsandridebicycles,nothorses(orhelicopters).Evenso,thesearewealthyfamilieswhopartywiththeinternational1%,andmediaintrusivenessmakesitincreasinglydifficulttomaintaintherightimage.

WhileEurope’smonarchieswillnodoubtbesmartenoughtostriveforsometimetocome,itistheBritishroyalswhohavemosttofearfromtheSpanishexample.

ItisonlytheQueenwhohaspreservedthemonarchyreputationwithherratherordinary(ifwell-heeled)grannystyle.ThedangerwillcomewithCharles,whohasbothanexpensivetasteoflifestyleandaprettyhierarchicalviewoftheworld.Hehasfailedtounderstandthatmonarchieshavelargelysurvivedbecausetheyprovideaservice—asnon-controversialandnon-politicalheadsofstate.CharlesoughttoknowthatasEnglishhistoryshows,itiskingsofrepublicans,whoarethemonarchy’sworstenemies.

21、accordingtothefirsttwoparagraphs,kingJuanCarlofspain

[A]usedtoenjoyhighpublicsupport

[B]wasunpopularamongEuropeanroyals

[C]endedhisreigninembarrassment

[D]casedhisrelationshipwithhisrivals

22、monarchsarekeptasheadofstateinEuropemostly

[A]owingtotheirundoubtedandrespectablestatus

[B]toachieveabalancebetweentraditionandreality

[C]togivevotersmorepublicfigurestolookupto

[D]duetotheireverlastingpoliticalembodiment

23.Whichofthefollowingisshowntobeodd,accordingtoParagraph4?

[A]Aristocrats’excessiverelianceoninheritedwealth.

[B]Thesimplelifestyleofthearistocraticfamilies.

[C]Theroleofthenobilityinmoderndemocracies.

[D]Thenobility’sadherencetotheirprivileges.

24.TheBritishroyals“havemosttofear”becauseCharles

[A]takesatoughlineonpoliticalissues.

[B]failstochangehislifestyleasadvised.

[C]takesrepublicansashispotentialallies.

[D]failstoadapthimselftohisfuturerole.

25.Whichofthefollowingisthebesttitleofthetext?

[A]Carlos,GloryandDisgraceCombined

[B]Carlos,aLessonforAllEuropeanMonarchs

[C]Charles,SlowtoReacttotheComingThreats

[D]Charles,AnxioustoSucceedtotheThrone

Text2

JusthowmuchdoestheConstitutionprotectyourdigitaldata?TheSupremeCourtwillnowconsiderwhetherpolicecansearchthecontentsofamobilephonewithoutawarrantifthephoneisonoraroundapersonduringanarrest.

Californiahasaskedthejusticestorefrainfromasweepingruling,particularlyonethatupsetstheoldassumptionsthatauthoritiesmaysearchthroughthepossessionsofsuspectsatthetimeoftheirarrest.Itishard,thestateargues,forjudgestoassesstheimplicationsofnewandrapidlychangingtechnologies.

ThecourtwouldberecklesslymodestifitfollowedCalifornia’sadvice.Enoughoftheimplicationsarediscernable,evenobvious,sothatthejusticecanandshouldprovideupdatedguidelinestopolice,lawyersanddefendants.

TheyshouldstartbydiscardingCalifornia’slameargumentthatexploringthecontentsofasmartphone-avaststorehouseofdigitalinformationissimilartosay,goingthroughasuspect’spurse.Thecourthasruledthatpolicedon'tviolatetheFourthAmendmentwhentheygothroughthewalletorpocketbook,ofanarresteewithoutawarrant.Butexploringone’ssmartphoneismorelikeenteringhisorherhome.Asmartphonemaycontainanarrestee’sreadinghistory,financialhistory,medicalhistoryandcomprehensiverecordsofrecentcorrespondence.Thedevelopmentof“cloudcomputing.”meanwhile,hasmadethatexplorationsomuchtheeasier.

ButthejusticesshouldnotswallowCalifornia’sargumentwhole.New,disruptivetechnologysometimesdemandsnovelapplicationsoftheConstitution’sprotections.OrinKerr,alawprofessor,comparestheexplosionandaccessibilityofdigitalinformationinthe21stcenturywiththeestablishmentofautomobileuseasadigitalnecessityoflifeinthe20th:Thejusticeshadtospecifynovelrulesforthenewpersonaldomainofthepassengercarthen;theymustsortouthowtheFourthAmendmentappliestodigitalinformationnow.

26.TheSupremeCourt,willworkoutwhether,duringanarrest,itislegitimateto

[A]searchforsuspects’mobilephoneswithoutawarrant.

[B]checksuspects’phonecontentswithoutbeingauthorized.

[C]preventsuspectsfromdeletingtheirphonecontents.

[D]prohibitsuspectsfromusingtheirmobilephones.

27.Theauthor’sattitudetowardCalifornia’sargumentisoneof

[A]tolerance.

[B]indiffere

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