2014考研英语(二)试题及答案解析

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一、试题部分

SectionIUseofEnglish

Directions:

Readthefollowingtext.Choosethebestword(s)foreachnumberedblankandmarkA,B,CorDonANSWERSHEET.(10points)

Thinnerisn'talwaysbetter.Anumberofstudieshave__1___thatnormal-weightpeopleareinfactathigherriskofsomediseasescomparedtothosewhoareoverweight.Andtherearehealthconditionsforwhichbeingoverweightisactually___2___.Forexample,heavierwomenarelesslikelytodevelopcalciumdeficiencythanthinwomen.___3___amongtheelderly,beingsomewhatoverweightisoftenan___4___ofgoodhealth.

Ofevengreater___5___isthefactthatobesityturnsouttobeverydifficulttodefine.Itisoftendefined___6___bodymassindex,orBMI.BMI___7__bodymassdividedbythesquareofheight.AnadultwithaBMIof18to25isoftenconsideredtobenormalweight.Between25and30isoverweight.Andover30isconsideredobese.Obesity,___8___,canbedividedintomoderatelyobese,severelyobese,andveryseverelyobese.

Whilesuchnumericalstandardsseem___9___,theyarenot.Obesityisprobablylessamatterofweightthanbodyfat.SomepeoplewithahighBMIareinfactextremelyfit,___10___otherswithalowBMImaybeinpoor___11___.Forexample,manycollegiateandprofessionalfootballplayers___12___asobese,thoughtheirpercentagebodyfatislow.Conversely,someonewithasmallframemayhavehighbodyfatbuta___13___BMI.

Todaywehavea(an)___14___tolabelobesityasadisgrace.Theoverweightaresometimes___15___inthemediawiththeirfacescovered.Stereotypes___16___withobesityincludelaziness,lackofwillpower,andlowerprospectsforsuccess.Teachers,employers,andhealthprofessionalshavebeenshowntoharborbiasesagainsttheobese.___17___veryyoungchildrentendtolookdownontheoverweight,andteasingaboutbodybuildhaslongbeenaprobleminschools.

Negativeattitudestowardobesity,___18___inhealthconcerns,havestimulatedanumberofanti-obesity___19___.Myownhospitalsystemhasbannedsugarydrinksfromitsfacilities.Manyemployershaveinstitutedweightlossandfitnessinitiatives.MichelleObamahaslaunchedahigh-visibilitycampaign__20___childhoodobesity,evenclaimingthatitrepresentsourgreatestnationalsecuritythreat.

1.[A]denied[B]conduced[C]doubled[D]ensured

2.[A]protective[B]dangerous[C]sufficient[D]troublesome

3.[A]Instead[B]However[C]Likewise[D]Therefore

4.[A]indicator[B]objective[C]origin[D]example

5.[A]impact[B]relevance[C]assistance[D]concern

6.[A]intermsof[B]incaseof[C]infavorof[D]inof

7.[A]measures[B]determines[C]equals[D]modifies

8.[A]inessence[B]incontrast[C]inturn[D]inpart

9.[A]complicated[B]conservative[C]variable[D]straightforward

10.[A]so[B]while[C]since[D]unless

11.[A]shape[B]spirit[C]balance[D]taste

12.[A]start[B]quality[C]retire[D]stay

13.[A]strange[B]changeable[C]normal[D]constant

14.[A]option[B]reason[C]opportunity[D]tendency

15.[A]employed[B]pictured[C]imitated[D]monitored

16.[A]compared[B]combined[C]settled[D]associated

17.[A]Even[B]Still[C]Yet[D]Only

18.[A]despised[B]corrected[C]ignored[D]grounded

19.[A]discussions[B]businesses[C]policies[D]studies

20.[A]for[B]against[C]with[D]without

SectionIIReadingComprehension

PartA

Directions:

Readthefollowingfourtexts.AnswerthequestionsbeloweachtextbychoosingA,B,CorD.MarkyouranswersonANSWERSHEET.(40points)

Text1

Whatwouldyoudowith590m?ThisisnowaquestionforGloriaMackenzie,an84-year-oldwidowwhorecentlyemergedfromhersmall,tin-roofedhouseinFloridatocollectthebiggestundividedlotteryjackpotinhistory.Ifshehopeshernew-foundfortunewillyieldlastingfeelingsoffulfillment,shecoulddoworsethanreadHappyMoneybyElizabethDumnandMichaelNorton.

Thesetwoacademicsuseanarrayofbehavioralresearchtoshowthatthemostrewardingwaystospendmoneycanbecounterintuitive.Fantasiesofgreatwealthofteninvolvevisionsoffancycarsandextravaganthomes.Yetsatisfactionwiththesematerialpurchaseswearsofffairlyquicklywhatwasonceexcitingandnewbecomesold-hat;regretcreepsin.Itisfarbettertospendmoneyonexperiences,sayMsDumnandMrNorton,likeinterestingtrips,uniquemealsorevengoingtothecinema.Thesepurchasesoftenbecomemorevaluablewithtime-asstoriesormemories-particularlyiftheyinvolvefeelingmoreconnectedtoothers.

Thisslimvolumeispackedwithtipstohelpwageslavesaswellaslotterywinnersgetthemost"happinessbangforyourbuck."Itseemsmostpeoplewouldbebetteroffiftheycouldshortentheircommutestowork,spendmoretimewithfriendsandfamilyandlessofitwatchingtelevision(somethingtheaverageAmericanspendsawhoppingtwomonthsayeardoing,andishardlyjollierforit).Buyinggiftsorgivingtocharityisoftenmorepleasurablethanpurchasingthingsforoneself,andluxuriesaremostenjoyablewhentheyareconsumedsparingly.ThisisapparentlythereasonMacDonald'srestrictstheavailabilityofitspopularMcRib-amarketingtrickthathasturnedtheporksandwichintoanobjectofobsession.

Readersof"HappyMoney"areclearlyaprivilegedlot,anxiousaboutfulfillment,nothunger.Moneymaynotquitebuyhappiness,butpeopleinwealthiercountriesaregenerallyhappierthanthoseinpoorones.Yetthelinkbetweenfeelinggoodandspendingmoneyonotherscanbeseenamongrichandpoorpeoplearoundtheworld,andscarcityenhancesthepleasureofmostthingsformostpeople.Noteveryonewillagreewiththeauthors'policyideas,whichrangefrommandatingmoreholidaytimetoreducingtaxincentivesforAmericanhomebuyers.Butmostpeoplewillcomeawayfromthisbookbelievingitwasmoneywellspent.

21.AccordingtoDumnandNorton,whichofthefollowingisthemostrewardingpurchase?

[A]Abighouse[B]Aspecialtour[C]Astylishcar[D]Arichmeal

22.Theauthor'sattitudetowardAmericans'watchingTVis________.

[A]critical[B]supportive[C]sympathetic[D]ambiguous

23.Macribismentionedinparagraph3toshowthat_______.

[A]consumersaresometimesirrational

[B]popularityusuallycomesafterquality

[C]marketingtricksareaftereffective

[D]raritygenerallyincreasespleasure

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